Undermanaged pain from surgery is a leading cause of long-term pain in humans…and we can only assume the same must be true for pets. Anesthesia (being asleep) is not the same thing as analgesia (not feeling pain)! Part of a comprehensive anesthetic and operative episode that places an emphasis on both safety and comfort must include multiple layers (types) of pain control that impede pain impulses at several different levels and through different mechanisms. These include, but are not limited to: local and regional nerve blockade (including epidurals), opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, spinal cord modulating medication, and unique instruments suchas surgical laser (for feline declaws and other procedures), and availability of minimally invasive (laparascopic) surgery.
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